What is Dyslexia?
Dyslexia derived from two Greek words, “Dys” meaning difficulty and “Lexis” meaning language or words.
Dyslexia is a learning difficulty that affects ability to reading, writing, spelling and speaking by affecting the development of left temporal lobe in the brain that controls language.
The International Dyslexia Association (IDA) defined dyslexia as:
“Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neuro-biological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities.
These difficulties typically results from a deficit in the phonological components of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction.
Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.”
Sign and Symptoms of Dyslexia:
The Sign and Symptoms of Dyslexia varies person to person according to strength and weakness of individuals.
Below are the some common sign of dyslexia-
- Difficulty with writing, reading, spelling and sequencing.
- Difficulty with working memory
- Confusion in differentiating left and right side.
- Difficulty with time management and organization.
- Issue with short term memory and low confidence.
- Behavioral problems and difficulty to expressing thoughts.
Sign of dyslexia as per age:
|Preschool children (under 5 years)||School age children (5 to 13 years)||Teenager and Adults (above 13 years)|
|Problems to learn, walk, jump, through or catch a ball||Trouble with use of writing tools, i.e. Pencil, pen etc.||Difficulty with time management|
|Delayed development of speech and pronouncing word||Obsessive behaviors and phobias of social connections||Difficulty to remember things like PIN, password or telephone numbers|
|Moving the eyes instead of moving the whole head||Trouble with understanding spelling that’s unpredictable||Difficulty in writing letters, reports or essay and typing|
|Jumbling of phrases while pronouncing long words, i.e. Beddy tear instead of Teddy bear||Difficulty in simple facts, putting letter numbers such as writing “6” instead of “9” or “b” instead of “d”||Difficulty in driving|
|Problem with/or little interesting learning letters of alphabets of new vocabulary words||Slow writing speed and poor hand writting||Problems related sensivity to light, test or smell|
Cause of dyslexia:
As per researchers the cause of dyslexia can be below conditions but the specific cause of dyslexia yet to be unclear.
1) Genetic disorder:
- Dyslexia is seems to be an inherited condition with a family history of any learning disability or dyslexia. As per researchers certain genes (mostly 6 genes) that may involves for the risk of dyslexia, out of which 4 genes are involves in neuronal migration (early stage of brain formation process), which leads to development of specialized brain areas
- Low birth weight or premature birth
2) Environmental risks:
- Minor cause of dyslexia is also due to exposure of drugs, nicotine or alcohol, during pregnancy can affects in brain developments in fetus
- The trauma, stroke in childhood could be considered environmental origin of dyslexic condition
Types of dyslexia:
1) Phonological dyslexia:
Phonological awareness is the ability to identify and manipulate the sound of language. This disorder have difficulties to dividing and blending the sound (phonenes). This type of dyslexia has 75 % of total dyslexic patient.
2) Surface dyslexia:
Difficulty reading, irregular word, regularization error, i.e. patient read CLOVE as rhyming with COVE and FLOOD with MOOD.
3) Visual and auditory dyslexia:
Visual dyslexia is a reading difficulty and reduce ability to make sense of information in through the eyes.
Auditory dyslexia is a difficulty of processing sound of letters or words such as multiple sounds mixed with a single sound.
Treatment and diagnosis:
Unfortunately, Dyslexia cannot be prevented or cured. However, parents and social environments can help to dyslexic children to grow normally and be a part of society with some extra care, help and support.
Some of the below points can help to dyslexic children.
- Always appreciate and celebrate the small success of dyslexic child.
- Listen to Audio books and try to read them with your children.
- Take help of teachers and professionals for good performance of your child.
- Use software or learning tools, word games to help your child understand better.
- Treatment of core problems with reading and spelling.
- Treatment of any concurrent psychological disorders and improves their individual development.
Facts about Dyslexia:
- The main cause of dyslexia is not understood, whenever it is learning disability with dyslexic brain which is actually larger and typically more creative than the normal brain.
- The people with dyslexia have normal intelligence and normal vision.
- 50 % people with dyslexia are left handed and vice versa but only 11% of total population is left handed.
- US department of health and human services estimated that 15% population has dyslexia.
- The normal human being (non dyslexic) usually use three areas on the left side of the brain to process language while the person with dyslexia use only the right side of the brain to process the language.
I hope this information will be useful for you. Please let me know your comments below.